Falsely Accused of a Crime? How to Defend Yourself (2023)

A false accusation of a crime occurs when you get accused of a crime that you did not commit. Falsely accusing someone of a crime without evidence (sometimes called “false reporting“) can itself be a serious criminal offense. Nevertheless, false accusations are not uncommon, especially with crimes such as:

Falsely Accused of a Crime? How to Defend Yourself (1)

  • rape,
  • domestic violence,
  • assault, and
  • arson.

Can you go to jail for false accusations? Statistics show that at least 2,372 people were wrongly accused of a crime from 1989 through the end of 2018. At least 151 were falsely accused in 2018.

There aremany reasons why a person may get falsely accused of a crime.Five of the most commonare:

  1. mistaken identity,
  2. misrecollection,
  3. malicious false accusations,
  4. official misconduct, and
  5. misleading forensic evidence.

A person can do five things if he/she is falsely accused of a crime. These are:

  1. hire a defense attorney,
  2. conduct a pre-file investigation,
  3. impeach the accuser, and/or
  4. file a civil suit for malicious prosecution.
  5. take a private polygraph

Our California criminal defense attorneys will address the following in this article:

  • 1. What are false allegations?
  • 2. How many people have had wrongful convictions in the U.S.?
  • 3. What are some reasons why people get falsely accused?
  • 4. What can a person do if falsely accused of a crime?
    • 4.1. Hire a defense attorney
    • 4.2. Conduct a pre-file investigation
    • 4.3. Impeach the accuser
    • 4.4. Civil suit for malicious prosecution
    • 4.5. Take a private polygraph

Falsely Accused of a Crime? How to Defend Yourself (2)

(Video) What Should I Do If I Have Been Falsely Accused of a Crime?

1. What are false allegations?

False allegations are when someone is accused of a crime that he/she did not commit. These charges should be dismissed if:

  • the accused or his defense attorney can show the court that he has been wrongly accused.

A wrongful conviction occurs when a factually innocent person gets convicted by the court system.

People may be wrongly accused of any type of crime in the United States. This includes the crimes of:

  • theft,
  • drugs,
  • sex crimes (rape), and
  • homicide.

One of the most common types of cases, though, involves the offense of battery domestic violence.

Example: Nia learns that her husband is cheating on her. To get back at him, she calls 9-1-1 and tells the police that her husband tried to punch her. The police then arrest the husband and book him with the crime of battery domestic violence.

Here, Nia falsely accused her husband of a crime. If the husband can prove he did not commit the offense, the crime should be dismissed. If not, the husband gets wrongfully convicted of a crime.

2. How many people have had wrongful convictions in the United States?

2,372 exonerations were recorded in the United States from 1989 through the end of 2018.1 This doesn’t necessarily mean that all of them were factually innocent. But it does suggest that false accusations by alleged victims and wrongful convictions are widespread.

An exoneration means that a court reverses a party’s criminal conviction. Exoneration statistics then help:

  • estimate stats on wrongful convictions,
  • since the exoneration means that a party was falsely accused and wrongfully convicted.

The National Registry of Exonerations has recorded 151 exonerations in 2018.2

The 2018 exonerations included:

  • 101 exonerations for violent felonies, including 68 homicides, 7 child sex abuse convictions, and 10 sexual assaults on adults,
  • 2 exonerees that had been sentenced to death,
  • 33 exonerations for drug crimes,
  • 23 exonerations that were based in whole or in part on DNA evidence,
  • 70 exonerations that were for convictions in which no crime was actually committed,
  • 107 exonerations that involved misconduct by government officials,
  • 49 exonerations that were for convictions based on guilty pleas,
  • 31 exonerations that involved mistaken eyewitness identifications,
  • 19 exonerations that involved false confessions, and
  • 111 exonerations that included perjury or a false accusation.3

On the topic of sexual assault, note that the majority of sexual assaults, an estimated 63 percent, are never reported to law enforcement.4 The prevalence of false reporting cases of sexual violence, however, is generally low.5

(Video) How to Defend Yourself Against False Accusations In Court | 5 Tips to Handle False Allegation

3. What are some reasons why people get falsely accused of a crime?

There are five common reasons why a person may get falsely accused of a crime. These are:

  1. mistaken identity – this is when an accuser misidentifies a person for committing a crime.
  2. misrecollection – or when an accuser makes an error while remembering details about a crime.
  3. malicious false accusations – this is when an accuser purposefully lies when telling the authorities that a person committed an offense. (One reason may be to gain the upper hand in a child custody/family law dispute. Another is an angry teenager falsely claiming child abuse to get back at his parent.)
  4. official misconduct – or when prosecutors or police commit some type of misconduct, or abuse of power, when arresting or charging a person for an offense.
  5. misleading forensic evidence – here, experts exaggerate statistical claims to make their statements more impactful.

In terms of this last reason, experts may exaggerate things when providing a:

  • DNA analysis, or
  • hair analysis.

As to misidentifications, these often happen during police line-ups. This is because witnesses tend to pick someone in the lineup who looks most like their memory of the suspect even if the suspect isn’t actually in the line-up. This phenomenon is called the “best guess problem.”

On the topic of official misconduct, note that this can be subtle in nature. During investigations, police are supposed to ask witnesses open-ended questions such as “what happened next?” in order to preserve accuracy. But sometimes police mistakenly ask “leading questions” which cause witnesses to create false memories.

Example: Police are investigating Marcos for the crime of burglary. They ask a witness several questions like “what happened then?” and “anything further?” The police then ask, “when did you see Marcos enter the house,” when in fact the witness only saw the suspect on a patch of grass.

The first two questions are permissible open-ended questions. But the final question is an impermissible leading question. It may cause false memories and confuse a witness. This, in turn, can result in a false accusation.

4. What can a person do if falsely accused of a crime?

There are five common ways to defend yourself against false accusations. These are:

  1. hire a criminal defense attorney,
  2. conduct a pre-file investigation,
  3. impeach the accuser,
  4. file a civil suit for malicious prosecution, and/or
  5. take a private polygraph.

4.1. Hire a defense attorney

The most important thing for a person to do if falsely accused of a crime is to:

  • remain silent, and
  • get legal representation to protect legal rights

An accused should never believe that he does not need a lawyer just because he knows he is innocent of an offense. There is arguably even a greater need for a defense attorney in these situations. This is because the case may involve:

  • interactions with prosecutors to discuss errors in criminal charges,
  • hostile accusers and witnesses,
  • false or misleading evidence, and
  • pleas of guilty to lesser offenses.

In terms of the latter, note that it may be in an accused’s best interest to:

  • reduce the risk of harsh penalties,
  • by pleading guilty to a crime that has softer punishments.

A criminal lawyer is the best person to advise an accused if this is the right thing to do.

(Video) What to do if someone is making false accusations against you.

4.2. Conduct a pre-file investigation

A “pre-file investigation” is when a law firm:

  1. investigates allegations of a crime, and
  2. does so before criminal charges get filed.

The goal of these investigations is to gather evidence that is favorable to an accused.

During a pre-file investigation, a defense attorney or firm may:

  • interview witnesses that the police have met with,
  • find new witnesses to question about the false claims,
  • gather physical evidence,
  • search background records,
  • collect information on an accuser to cast doubts on his or her credibility, and
  • consult with expert witnesses.

Pre-file investigations can be a very effective defense strategy. This is because once the investigation is complete, an accused’s attorney can go to the District Attorney and try to persuade the D.A. either to:

  1. decide not to file any charges in the matter, or
  2. file charges of a lesser crime.

Examples of a lesser crime might be disturbing the peaceas opposed to domestic violence.

4.3. Impeach the accuser

To “impeach an accuser” means to present evidence or questions thatundermine the accuser’s credibility.

This typically occurs at trial during cross-examination. A defense lawyer will ask witnesses if they know of facts that reflect poorly on the accuser’s reputation for truthfulness.

Impeaching may also involve presenting some type of evidence that shows the accuser is not truthful or knowledgeable on a topic.

4.4. File a civil suit for malicious prosecution

A malicious prosecution claim is a:

  • civil cause of action,
  • that is designed to go after people who file frivolous lawsuits,
  • and cause damages as a result.

In these cases, the injured party files a civil lawsuit against the person that brought the meritless claim. The plaintiff then has to prove three things to succeed in the suit. These are:

  1. the defendant filed a frivolous claim against the plaintiff,
  2. the lawsuit was filed not to win, but rather for some other purpose (like harassment), and
  3. the plaintiff suffered damages as a result.

If all of these get proven and the plaintiff is proven innocent, then the plaintiff may be compensated for injuries incurred.

(Video) 6 Ways to Deal with Narcissists’ False Accusations

This compensation takes the form of compensatory damages and may include:

  • economic damages (like attorney fees and medical costs), and
  • non-economic damages (like loss of reputation and embarrassment).

Falsely accused victims may be able to bring a defamation case as well.

4.5. Take a private polygraph

Taking and passing a private polygraph test cannot hurt and could only help a defendant who is falsely accused. The defense attorney can show the results to the prosecutors, who may then be swayed to dismiss the charges or offer to do another polygraph at the prosecutor’s office. If the defendant passes again, the prosecutors may decide they have too weak a case to continue prosecuting.

Note that the results of private polygraph tests remain confidential unless the defendant chooses to share them. If the defendant fails the test, the authorities never have to know. Learn more about California polygraph law.

Have you been wrongfully accused of a crime?

Contact the Shouse Law Group today to get the help you deserve. Our team of criminal defense attorneys can help you defend yourself against false accusations against you.

Falsely Accused of a Crime? How to Defend Yourself (3)

Legal References:


What is the punishment for falsely accusing someone? ›

A conviction for giving false information would be a misdemeanor with up to six months in jail, a $1,000 fine, or both. However, if the false information was offered in an effort to evade arrest, additional felony charges could be possible.

What if someone falsely accuses you of a crime? ›

Your first step should be to retain an experienced criminal defense attorney who has handled cases where the accused faced similar criminal charges as yours. The importance of hiring a lawyer immediately—even if you are still just a suspect—cannot be emphasized enough.

How would an innocent person react when accused? ›

When falsely accused of wrongdoing, people usually feel enraged and express their anger about the unfair treatment. A new study suggests people who express their angry feelings openly are often seen as guilty.

How do you prove your innocent when accused of stealing? ›

You might not know how to “prove your innocence” when accused of stealing.
These include:
  1. Do not destroy evidence that might make you look guilty;
  2. Speak with the “victim” or witnesses;
  3. Communicate with anyone connected with law enforcement without your lawyer present;
  4. Consenting to a DNA without your lawyer's approval.
Sep 5, 2022

How do you beat false accusations? ›

How to Defend Yourself Against False Accusations
  1. Stay Calm. ...
  2. Hire an Attorney to Help You Fight Back. ...
  3. Gather Evidence. ...
  4. Challenge the Accuser's Credibility. ...
  5. Find Your Own Witnesses and Present Evidence of Your Side of the Story. ...
  6. Develop a Strategy in Criminal Defense Cases.
Aug 8, 2022

Can you prosecute someone for false allegations? ›

A person who deliberately makes a false allegation of a crime in the knowledge that there is a risk that the police will conduct an investigation would have committed one of the relevant offences and is liable to be prosecuted subject to public interest considerations.

How do you prove you were framed? ›

You can work with your lawyer to issue subpoenas and demand public records. You can use your state's public information laws in order to demand police and other government records. This can help you prove your alibi and help you gather evidence that others are conspiring against you.

Can you go to jail for lying to the police? ›

What could happen to people making false reports? Making a false report could lead to a fine, a conviction for wasting police time or even a prison sentence for the more serious offence of perverting the course of justice. The offence carries a maximum penalty of six months imprisonment.

How do you deny something you did? ›

How to politely decline
  1. I'm sorry, but we had to refuse your request to move to another department.
  2. I'm sorry but I can't help you, I have something planned out for tomorrow.
  3. No, I'm afraid I can't do that for you. ...
  4. As I said, I'm afraid I can't help you at the moment.

How do you prove you aren't lying? ›

Provide evidence of what happened.

The best way to prove to someone that you are not lying is to offer the person evidence that directly contradicts the claim. If you can think of any way to demonstrate your truthfulness, do so by backing up your statements with credible proof.

What are the signs of a guilty person? ›

Signs of Guilt
  • Being sensitive to the effects of every action.
  • Overwhelmed by possibly making the “wrong” decision.
  • Low self-esteem.
  • Putting others before yourself until it's detrimental.
  • Avoiding your full range of emotions.
Dec 16, 2022

Will I be considered innocent if I am accused of a crime? ›

First, section 11(d) guarantees the right of any person charged with an offence to be presumed innocent until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.

What is the proof of innocence? ›

The presumption of innocence until proven guilty means that the burden of proof is always on the government to satisfy you that [defendant] is guilty of the crime with which [he/she] is charged beyond a reasonable doubt.

What burden of proof is required to convict an accused? ›

Beyond a reasonable doubt is the legal burden of proof required to affirm a conviction in a criminal case. In a criminal case, the prosecution bears the burden of proving that the defendant is guilty beyond all reasonable doubt.

What is the required proof for the conviction of the accused? ›

Every criminal defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty. The standard of proof is “beyond a reasonable doubt”: a preponderance of evidence, as used in civil proceedings, is not sufficient to sustain a criminal conviction. The burden of proof is on the public prosecutor.

Should you defend yourself against false accusations? ›

Even when accusations are false, you should take them seriously. You can defend yourself against false allegations by hiring a criminal defense lawyer to represent you. Contact one of our attorneys today to help prove the accusations against you are false.

How do you defend yourself when accused of stealing at work? ›

Were You Accused of Employee Theft? Here Are the Steps You Should Take
  1. Ask Questions. ...
  2. Seek Legal Representation. ...
  3. Don't Be Pressured Into Giving Up Your Right To An Attorney. ...
  4. Remain Calm. ...
  5. Know Your Rights.

What is it called when you lie under oath? ›

An individual commits perjury when, under oath, he willfully (under §1621) or knowingly (under §1623) makes a false statement as to a material matter: To successfully prosecute an individual for perjury, the government must prove that the statements are false.

How do I sue someone for defamation of character? ›

The elements you would need to prove to bring a defamation claim are as follows:
  1. A defamatory statement was made. ...
  2. The statement caused, or is likely to cause, 'serious harm' to the claimant. ...
  3. The statement refers to the claimant. ...
  4. The statement was published. ...
  5. There is no lawful justification or other defence.
Nov 26, 2021

How do I report a slander to the police? ›

Report a hate crime or incident in person or by phone

To find your nearest police station, use the local police force finder on the police's website. To report it to the police by phone, call 101.

What do you do when a child falsely accuses you? ›

Hire an attorney experienced in the area of False Child Abuse Allegation Defense. This is a very serious matter. It is imperative that you are represented by a lawyer who has a history of handling similar cases and can safeguard your interests.

How do you prove evidence in court? ›

Documents must be proved by producing them at trial. Section 62 of Indian Evidence Act defines primary evidence which means a documents itself produced for inspection of Court. Secondary evidence of the contents of private documents is admissible only if the original document is not in existence or not available.

How long do the police have to charge you? ›

There is no general time limit for how long a police investigation can stay open in England and Wales. For summary only offences, which are heard in the Magistrates' Court, the case must be heard within twelve months of the crime.

What if someone lies to the police about you? ›

Lying to the police about a crime can lead to charges of obstruction of justice. People commit obstruction of justice when they willfully do anything to hinder, delay, or obstruct law enforcement officials in the performance of their official duties.

How long after an offence can you be charged? ›

Indictable offences do not have time limits imposed and can be prosecuted at any time after the alleged offence.

What is a good sentence for deny? ›

He denied the report that he would be quitting his job. She denies all the charges that have been made against her. They are still denying (that) the problem exists. The police deny that racism is a problem in the department.

What are the 4 types of denial? ›

To summarize, denial of fact says that the offense in question never happened, denial of impact trivializes the consequences of the inappropriate behavior, denial of responsibility attempts to justify or excuse the behavior, and denial of hope shows that the person is unwilling to take active steps to make things ...

What do you call someone who refuses to accept the truth? ›

de·​ni·​al·​ist di-ˈnī(-ə)l-ist. dē- plural denialists. : a person who denies the existence, truth, or validity of something despite proof or strong evidence that it is real, true, or valid : someone who practices denialism.

What words do liars use? ›

Liars often overemphasize their truthfulness by adding words or phrases to a statement that are meant to make them sound more convincing.
4. Overemphasizing their trustworthiness: "To be honest."
  • "To be honest"
  • "To tell you the truth"
  • "Believe me"
  • "Let me be clear"
  • "The fact is"
Oct 10, 2018

What are the 5 signs that someone is lying? ›

  • A Change in Speech Patterns. One telltale sign someone may not be telling the whole truth is irregular speech. ...
  • The Use of Non-Congruent Gestures. ...
  • Not Saying Enough. ...
  • Saying Too Much. ...
  • An Unusual Rise or Fall in Vocal Tone. ...
  • Direction of Their Eyes. ...
  • Covering Their Mouth or Eyes. ...
  • Excessive Fidgeting.

What is the best way to prove someone is lying? ›

While not an exhaustive list, these verbal and non-verbal signs of deception are more common than some of the others we've seen.
  • Premise. ...
  • Verbal Indicators. ...
  • No Response/Non-Responsive. ...
  • Delayed Response. ...
  • Repeating the Question. ...
  • No Denial. ...
  • Overly Specific/Overly Vague. ...
  • Protest Statements.

What organ does guilt affect? ›

Guilt, Fishkin says, is associated with activity in the prefrontal cortex, the logical-thinking part of the brain. Guilt can also trigger activity in the limbic system. (That's why it can feel so anxiety-provoking.)

What is the body language of a guilty person? ›

Often a person feeling guilt will instinctively hold his head with one or even both hands. The hands often are covering the eyes, because he would rather not see other people while feeling guilt. The posture here is similar to a “woe is me” type of feeling. It is like the person is trying to ask “What have I done?”

How does a guilty person act when confronted? ›

A guilty person will tends to have more emotionally-charged dialogue with you. "Someone harboring a guilty conscience may be quick to jump to extreme anger when questioned," therapist Dana Koonce, MA, LMFT, tells Bustle. "Because they are perceiving you as a 'threat,' fight or flight is activated.

How do innocent people get convicted? ›

The leading factors in wrongful convictions are: Eyewitness misidentification. False confessions. Police and prosecutorial misconduct.

Who decides a accused is guilty? ›

The judge decides whether the accused person is guilty or innocent on the basis of evidence presented and in accordance with the law. If the accused is convicted, then the judge pronounces the sentence. Q.

Who is supposed to prove the guilt of an accused? ›

"It is fundamental principle of criminal jurisprudence that an accused is presumed to be innocent and, therefore, the burden lies on the prosecution to prove the guilt of the accused beyond reasonable doubt.

How do you prove someone innocence when falsely accused? ›

7 Types of Evidence that Can Be Used to Prove Innocence in South Carolina
  1. Witness Testimony. Witness testimony can be used to prove innocence in two ways. ...
  2. Phone Records. ...
  3. Employment, Bank Account, or Other Records. ...
  4. Surveillance Camera Footage. ...
  5. Phone Photos or Videos. ...
  6. Other Records. ...
  7. DNA Evidence.
Aug 25, 2022

What is defendants proof of evidence? ›

Defence Case Statement (DCS)

A proof of evidence is a written statement containing details of what it is intended the witness will say at trial. It is a document prepared for a defendant's legal representatives.

Is it harder to prove innocent or guilty? ›

It is a much more difficult task to prove actual innocence than to prove there is room for reasonable doubt. If you have more questions about innocent vs. guilty verdicts or need experienced legal counsel for some other criminal defense matter, please feel free to contact the MacDonald Law Office, LLC today!

What are the 5 burdens of proof? ›

burden of proof
  • beyond a reasonable doubt in criminal law.
  • clear and convincing evidence in fraud in will disputes.
  • preponderance of the evidence in most civil cases.
  • probable cause in the acquisition of a warrant or arrest proceeding.
  • reasonable belief as part of establishing probable cause.

What type of evidence would be sufficient to convict the defendant? ›

Evidence that clearly demonstrates a defendant committed a crime is known as direct evidence. Factual evidence that incontrovertibly shows a person committed the alleged offense may be used to meet the standards for proving guilt beyond all reasonable doubt.

What is the rule on negative allegations? ›

Evidence need not be given in support of a negative allegation except when such negative allegation is an essential part of the statement of the right or title on which the cause of action of defense is founded, nor even in such case when the allegation is a denial of the existence of a document, the custody of which ...

Can you get convicted without evidence? ›

Prosecutions with no supporting evidence and a well-represented defendant are less likely to succeed when compared with cases with significant supporting evidence, but there is always a possibility that there will be a conviction.

What are the 4 burdens of proof? ›

There are three burdens of proof that exist for most cases: proof beyond a reasonable doubt, clear and convincing evidence, and preponderance of the evidence.

What happens when there is not enough evidence to prove the defendant's guilt? ›

If it cannot be proved without a doubt that a defendant in a criminal case is guilty, then that person should not be convicted. Each juror must walk into the courtroom presuming the accused is innocent and it is the job of the prosecutor to convince them otherwise.

Can you report slander to the police? ›

Can I report slander or defamation to the police? Slander or defamation of character is a civil matter, and so we do not have any jurisdiction to assist with this. We recommend you speaking to a solicitor or Citizens Advice before taking any action.

Can you go to jail for false accusations in Texas? ›

Yes, you can go to jail for false accusations in Texas. If you're facing a crime related to lying to the police or other court officials, get in contact with a criminal defense attorney. An attorney can help you build a defense against conviction.

What is the false accusation law in Texas? ›

Criminal charges against the false accuser

Filing a false police report in Texas is a Class B misdemeanor and carries a penalty of up to 180 days in jail. Depending on how serious the accusation was, the prosecutor could file charges against your accuser and they could face a criminal conviction.

What is the law on false accusation in New York? ›

It is critically important to recognize that Falsely Reporting an Incident can either be charged as a misdemeanor or a felony. As such, it is punishable by up to one year in jail and as much as up to seven years in state prison.

How do you win a slander suit? ›

In order to be successful in a defamation lawsuit, you must prove: The defendant made a false statement of fact. It must be objectively untrue and it must be presented as a fact rather than as an opinion. The statement was communicated to a third party.

What are some examples of slander? ›

The most common examples of slander per se are:
  • Accusing the plaintiff of criminal actions.
  • Stating that the plaintiff has certain infectious diseases.
  • Making harmful statements about the plaintiff's business or occupation.
Jan 1, 2023

How long do you go to jail for slander? ›

Serious slander is punishable by imprisonment of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period or 4 months and 1 day to 2 years and 4 months while simple slander is punishable by arresto menor or 1 day to 1 month or a fine not exceeding P200.

What is the punishment for falsely accusing someone in Texas? ›

Filing a false report under Section 37.08 is a Class B Misdemeanor, punishable by up to 180 days in jail and a fine up to $2,000.

Can you press charges against someone for making false accusations to CPS in Texas? ›

Falsely accusing someone of child abuse is a criminal offense in Texas. Under Texas Family Code § 261.107, making a false report of child abuse with the intent to deceive is a state jail felony.

What happens if you lie in court in Texas? ›

Perjury is a class A misdemeanor in the state of Texas, the highest misdemeanor level that a person can be charged with. It carries a maximum penalty of up to one year in county jail and/or a fine of up to $4,000.

Can you sue for defamation of character in Texas? ›

How do I sue someone for defamation of character in Texas? You must make a timely request for a retraction, correction or clarification before suing. You also must prove that the defendant made a false statement to a third party which either injured the reputation of a living person or blackened the memory of the dead.

What counts as defamation in Texas? ›

Texas Defamation Law

Defamation happens when someone makes a false statement of fact about you that harms your reputation. Written defamation is called "libel." Spoken defamation is called "slander."

What is the accusation rule? ›

The constitutional right to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation entitles the defendant to insist that the indictment apprise him of the crime charged with such reasonable certainty that he can make his defense and protect himself after judgment against another prosecution on the same charge.

Can you sue for defamation in New York? ›

In New York, defamation is a civil matter. A person who suffers financial or emotional damages following another person's false statement may choose to sue the offender, which would bring about a case in the appropriate New York court.


1. How to unmask your accuser as a liar (and win your case in court without a lawyer)
(Coimbra Law)
2. How to Defend Yourself Against False Accusations
(The Umansky Law Firm)
3. I am Innocent. I Was Falsely Accused. How Can I Prove This?
(Coimbra Law)
4. One Mistake To Avoid When You Are Falsely Accused at Work
(Arkady Itkin)
5. What can I do if a colleague makes false allegations against me?
(Slater and Gordon Lawyers (UK))
6. FALSE ACCUSATIONS: Yes I Want To Scare You
(Alexander Grace)
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